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Tempered Glass

Tempered glass is physically and thermally stronger than normal glass. The greater contraction of the inner layer during manufacturing induces compressive stresses in the surface of the glass balanced by tensile stresses in the body of the glass. For glass to be considered tempered, this compressive stress on the surface of the glass should be a minimum of 69 megapascals (10,000 psi). For it to be considered safety glass, the surface compressive stress should exceed 100 megapascals (15,000 psi). As a result of the increased surface stress, if the glass is ever broken it only breaks into small circular pieces as opposed to sharp jagged shards. This characteristic makes tempered glass safe for high-pressure and explosion proof applications

It is this compressive stress that gives the tempered glass increased strength. This is because annealed glass, which has almost no internal stress, usually forms microscopic surface cracks, and in the absence of surface compression, any applied tension to the glass causes tension at the surface, which can drive crack propagation. Once a crack starts propagating, tension is further concentrated at the tip of the crack, causing it to propagate at the speed of sound in the material. Consequently, annealed glass is fragile and breaks into irregular and sharp pieces.

Heat Strengthened Glass

Heat strengthened glass is similar to tempered glass except that the cooling is done at a much slower pace. Annealed glass is heated to approximately 650-700 º C, but the cooling process is slower than that for tempered glass. Heat strengthened glass is about twice as strong as annealed glass of the same size and thickness. Heat strengthened glass is a semi- tempered glass which retains the normal properties of ordinary float glass. Heat Strengthened glass has been strengthened thermally by inducing a surface compression of 6000 to 9000 psi as compared to a range of 11000 to 20000 psi in case of fully tempered glass. Heat strengthening adds strength to the glass while limiting the change in its breakage characteristics. The cooling process places the surfaces of the glass in a state of high compression and the central core in a state of compensating tension.

Double Glazed Glass

An insulated glass unit (IGU) combines multiple glass panes into a single window system. Most IGUs are double glazed (two panes of glass) with three panes (triple glazing) or more becoming more common due to higher energy costs. The panes of glass in IGUs are separated by a spacer and a still layer of air or gas. The glass is then fitted into window frames, which is made wider to accommodate the two panes.

Double glazed windows are an ideal energy efficient choice with the added benefit of minimizing noise. The sealed air gap between the two panes acts as an added layer of insulation. This extra insulation lessens your reliance on artificial heaters and air conditioners and can ultimately reduce your energy costs. When you are close to a window, your comfort is also affected by the temperature of the glass. With double glazing it’s harder for the unwanted outside temperature to transfer through, leaving the inside pane close to room temperature. Double glazing also reduces condensation which can result in the unhealthy formation of mold.

Triple glazed glass

Triple glazing is exactly as it sounds. Triple glazed has three glass panes. Argon gas is also used in between the layers of glass and it is this gas that makes them so much more energy efficient. Although invisible to the naked eye, argon gas sits sandwiched between the panes of glass. The gas allows the sunlight to pass through all while cutting down on the heat energy that can escape through it. The three layers of glass also provide increased security; Thicker the area, harder it is for vandals to break. Additionally, they offer great energy savings when compared to regular and double glazed windows.

Installing triple glazed windows is equivalent to upgrading your walls and ceilings from R-20 to R-40 (in certain circumstances), and they can decrease relative heat loss, which increases thermal comfort inside. To cut costs, a combination of double glazed windows and triple glazed windows can be used with the building orientation. Consider insulated hollow frames when installing your windows, as they can increase their performance, which saves money in the long-run.

Laminated Glass

Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered. In the event of breaking, it is held in place by an interlayer, typically of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), between its two or more layers of glass. The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when broken, and its high strength prevents the glass from breaking up into large sharp pieces. This produces a characteristic "spider web" cracking pattern when the impact is not enough to completely pierce the glass. In the case of the EVA, the thermoset EVA, offers a complete bounding (cross-linking) with the material whether it is glass, polycarbonate, PET, or other types of products.

Laminated glass is made by sandwiching PVB or EVA sheet between two panes of glass. They are sealed by a series of pressure rollers and then autoclaved. During the manufacturing process of laminated glass, mechanical and chemical bonding is developed between the PVB sheet and the glass. The adhesive nature of PVB creates the mechanical bond and the hydrogen bonding between PVB and glass is the reason for chemical bonding. Because of the chemical bonding of PVB with glass, even when there is any breakage, the laminated glass remains intact.

Pattern Glass

Patterned glass is a kind of decorative translucent glass with embossed patterns on one or both surfaces. Pattern Glass or Decorative Glass or Rolled Glass is generally used where privacy or obscurity is desired but light transmission is still important. With the special property of decoration, patterned glass can allow light to pass through, at the same time, it can also prevent clear view. Usually it transmits only slightly less light than clear glass. Patterned glass is not-perfectly-smooth structure with different patterns impressed on it. The depth, size and shape of the patterns largely determine the magnitude and direction of reflection.

Basically patterned glass has a pattern impressed on one side of the glass which prevents someone from seeing though it, for privacy. Pattern glass can also be ordered in various tints as well. A common application of this sort is when used in privacy walls to separate one room from another. Patterned glass is made with a rolled glass process. All rolled patterned glass begins as a batch of materials, including silica sand, soda, and lime. These materials are melted together in a tank, and then the molten glass mixture is fed onto a machine slab. The glass flows under a refractory gate which controls glass volume and speed then moves between two counter-rotating, water-cooled rollers. One of these rollers is embossed, imprinting a distinct pattern onto the soft surface of the glass while the other roller is smooth.

Tempered Glass

Tempered glass is physically and thermally stronger than normal glass. The greater contraction of the inner layer during manufacturing induces compressive stresses in the surface of the glass balanced by tensile stresses in the body of the glass. For glass to be considered tempered, this compressive stress on the surface of the glass should be a minimum of 69 megapascals (10,000 psi). For it to be considered safety glass, the surface compressive stress should exceed 100 megapascals (15,000 psi). As a result of the increased surface stress, if the glass is ever broken it only breaks into small circular pieces as opposed to sharp jagged shards. This characteristic makes tempered glass safe for high-pressure and explosion proof applications

It is this compressive stress that gives the tempered glass increased strength. This is because annealed glass, which has almost no internal stress, usually forms microscopic surface cracks, and in the absence of surface compression, any applied tension to the glass causes tension at the surface, which can drive crack propagation. Once a crack starts propagating, tension is further concentrated at the tip of the crack, causing it to propagate at the speed of sound in the material. Consequently, annealed glass is fragile and breaks into irregular and sharp pieces.

Heat Strengthened Glass

Heat strengthened glass is similar to tempered glass except that the cooling is done at a much slower pace. Annealed glass is heated to approximately 650-700 º C, but the cooling process is slower than that for tempered glass. Heat strengthened glass is about twice as strong as annealed glass of the same size and thickness. Heat strengthened glass is a semi- tempered glass which retains the normal properties of ordinary float glass. Heat Strengthened glass has been strengthened thermally by inducing a surface compression of 6000 to 9000 psi as compared to a range of 11000 to 20000 psi in case of fully tempered glass. Heat strengthening adds strength to the glass while limiting the change in its breakage characteristics. The cooling process places the surfaces of the glass in a state of high compression and the central core in a state of compensating tension.

Double Glazed Glass

An insulated glass unit (IGU) combines multiple glass panes into a single window system. Most IGUs are double glazed (two panes of glass) with three panes (triple glazing) or more becoming more common due to higher energy costs. The panes of glass in IGUs are separated by a spacer and a still layer of air or gas. The glass is then fitted into window frames, which is made wider to accommodate the two panes.

Double glazed windows are an ideal energy efficient choice with the added benefit of minimizing noise. The sealed air gap between the two panes acts as an added layer of insulation. This extra insulation lessens your reliance on artificial heaters and air conditioners and can ultimately reduce your energy costs. When you are close to a window, your comfort is also affected by the temperature of the glass. With double glazing it’s harder for the unwanted outside temperature to transfer through, leaving the inside pane close to room temperature. Double glazing also reduces condensation which can result in the unhealthy formation of mold.

Triple glazed glass

Triple glazing is exactly as it sounds. Triple glazed has three glass panes. Argon gas is also used in between the layers of glass and it is this gas that makes them so much more energy efficient. Although invisible to the naked eye, argon gas sits sandwiched between the panes of glass. The gas allows the sunlight to pass through all while cutting down on the heat energy that can escape through it. The three layers of glass also provide increased security; Thicker the area, harder it is for vandals to break. Additionally, they offer great energy savings when compared to regular and double glazed windows.

Installing triple glazed windows is equivalent to upgrading your walls and ceilings from R-20 to R-40 (in certain circumstances), and they can decrease relative heat loss, which increases thermal comfort inside. To cut costs, a combination of double glazed windows and triple glazed windows can be used with the building orientation. Consider insulated hollow frames when installing your windows, as they can increase their performance, which saves money in the long-run.

Laminated Glass

Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered. In the event of breaking, it is held in place by an interlayer, typically of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), between its two or more layers of glass. The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when broken, and its high strength prevents the glass from breaking up into large sharp pieces. This produces a characteristic "spider web" cracking pattern when the impact is not enough to completely pierce the glass. In the case of the EVA, the thermoset EVA, offers a complete bounding (cross-linking) with the material whether it is glass, polycarbonate, PET, or other types of products.

Laminated glass is made by sandwiching PVB or EVA sheet between two panes of glass. They are sealed by a series of pressure rollers and then autoclaved. During the manufacturing process of laminated glass, mechanical and chemical bonding is developed between the PVB sheet and the glass. The adhesive nature of PVB creates the mechanical bond and the hydrogen bonding between PVB and glass is the reason for chemical bonding. Because of the chemical bonding of PVB with glass, even when there is any breakage, the laminated glass remains intact.

Pattern Glass

Patterned glass is a kind of decorative translucent glass with embossed patterns on one or both surfaces. Pattern Glass or Decorative Glass or Rolled Glass is generally used where privacy or obscurity is desired but light transmission is still important. With the special property of decoration, patterned glass can allow light to pass through, at the same time, it can also prevent clear view. Usually it transmits only slightly less light than clear glass. Patterned glass is not-perfectly-smooth structure with different patterns impressed on it. The depth, size and shape of the patterns largely determine the magnitude and direction of reflection.

Basically patterned glass has a pattern impressed on one side of the glass which prevents someone from seeing though it, for privacy. Pattern glass can also be ordered in various tints as well. A common application of this sort is when used in privacy walls to separate one room from another. Patterned glass is made with a rolled glass process. All rolled patterned glass begins as a batch of materials, including silica sand, soda, and lime. These materials are melted together in a tank, and then the molten glass mixture is fed onto a machine slab. The glass flows under a refractory gate which controls glass volume and speed then moves between two counter-rotating, water-cooled rollers. One of these rollers is embossed, imprinting a distinct pattern onto the soft surface of the glass while the other roller is smooth.