Each assessment was implemented in Spanish and took approximately 45 minutes. Data collectors secured the interview data and were blinded to women’s assignment to the intervention arms. The health educators described how unhealthy relationships, including those characterized by abuse and coercion, can create barriers to practicing safer sex.
We also controlled for cycles and trends specific to preterm births among Latina women that could induce spurious associations in a simple, before-and-after study design. The 2016 US presidential election appears to have been associated with an increase in preterm births among US Latina women. Anti-immigration policies have been proposed and enforced in the aftermath of the 2016 presidential election; future research should evaluate the association of these actions with population health. This population-based study used an interrupted time series design to assess 32.9 million live births and found that the number of preterm births among Latina women increased above expected levels after the election. Hispanic women are 40 percent more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 20 percent more likely to die from cervical cancer, as compared to non-Hispanic white women.
Women residing in the United States who had singleton births during the study period were included. Counts of singleton term and preterm births by month and race/ethnicity from January 1, 2009, through July 30, 2017 , were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wonder online database. While some argue that Latinas arechoosing lower-paid professions, further education isn’t a panacea, as shown in Figure A. Regardless of their level of educational attainment or their occupation, Latinas are paid less than their white male counterparts. AdditionalEPI research on the Hispanic-white wage gapincludes analysis of immigrant status and country of origin.
Others are out of the workforce due to individual or family challenges that keep them from working, such as health or mental health issues, or are working in informal jobs https://acordcapital.com/the-ecuador-women-game/ or are undocumented and thus do not qualify for unemployment insurance if laid off. In February 2020, about 5 million people were actively seeking work but not employed.
Additionally, estimates of virus prevalence need to be interpreted carefully until studies directly comparing pregnant women and the general population are completed. The research team measured levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to estimate rates of exposure to the novel coronavirus in pregnant women cared for at two Philadelphia hospitals. They found that, overall, 6.2 percent of these women possessed antibodies to the virus, but with significant variation across racial and ethnic groups — 9.7 percent in Black women, 10.4 percent in Hispanic/Latina women, 2.0 percent in White/Non-Hispanic women, and 0.9 percent in Asian women.
Second, it remains unclear whether the patterns found in New York City generalize nationwide. Given that New York City has signaled support for immigrants by limiting cooperation between local agencies and federal immigration authorities,21-23 national data may show sharper increases in preterm births after the election. Two recent studies17,18 investigated how anti-immigration legislation and policing affected births among Latina women. The first study17 found a 24% greater risk of low birth weight among children born to Latina mothers after a federal immigration raid compared with births the year before the raid; no such change appeared among births to non-Latina women. The second study18 found that prenatal exposure to the passage of a restrictive immigration law in Arizona coincided with lower birth weight among children born to Latina immigrant women but not among children born to US-born white, black, or Latina women.
My previous research has shown that there are four major patterns of bias women face at work. This new study emphasizes that women of color experience these to different degrees, and in different ways. Third, as noted above, we were not able to disaggregate births to Latina mothers by nativity status owing to data limitations. Foreign-born Latina women have a lower risk for preterm birth than their US-born counterparts.39 A decrease in the number of foreign-born women among Latina women giving birth immediately after the election could, therefore, have contributed to observed increases in preterm birth. If, however, compositional changes drove our results, we would expect a similar association between the election and male and female preterm births.
Latinx cultural values can trigger mental health issues in the lives of Latinx women and cause them to underutilize mental health services as compared to the general population. About one in four Latina teenagers have thought about committing suicide, a rate higher than Latino teenage counterparts, according to Salud America! 6 These rates are not only due to racial and gender discrimination, but are also a result of Latinx cultural values such familisimo and marianismo7. Familisimo, although it emphasizes a strong family unit, can inhibit Latina teenagers from embracing their own unique independent identity8. Marianismo, rooted in Catholicism’s admiration of the Virgin Mary, is the belief that women must be pure, self sacrificing, pleasant, nurturing and demure9.
Disaggregating the white male premium and the Hispanic woman penalty for various subgroups of Hispanic women can help paint a fuller picture of wage gaps for Hispanic workers based on country of origin, immigration history, and education. This methodological approach demonstrates how white men and Hispanic women of different countries of origin are respectively advantaged and disadvantaged compared to other workers in the economy, while also facilitating a direct wage comparison between the two groups. The late date for Latina Equal Pay Day demonstrates the differential economic well-being faced by Latinas compared to white men in terms of earnings. In addition to finding that unexplained wage gap for Hispanic women is greater than the aggregation of the absolute ethnic and gender effects, we also identify particular groups of Hispanic women at an even greater disadvantage.
(See Figure 1.) Latina women were 16 percentage points likelier than white women in the same income category — and Black women 12 percentage points likelier — to report loss of employment income in their household. With over 20 years of industry experience with leading staffing vendors, Vanessa has held several high-level senior management positions.
While many Latina women work outside the home in their countries of origin, their efforts in the U.S. often yield more economic benefits.
This can leave them open to discrimination and bias, which can be especially harmful for women of color. While the federal minimum wage acts as an equalizer between genders, women of color are over-represented among low-wage earner. While they account for 17 percent of the total workforce, they make up 33 percent of workers in fast-growing, low-wage jobs like those in fast food, retail, and home health aid work.